"REMEMBER, remember the fifth of November, gunpowder, treason and plot. We see no reason why gunpowder treason should ever be forgot."
Guy Fawkes was the best-known member of the Gunpowder Plot and would lose his life because of it.
Who was Guy Fawkes?
Fawkes was a member of a prominent Yorkshire family and a convert to Roman Catholicism.
"His adventurous spirit, as well as his religious zeal, led him to leave Protestant England (1593) and enlist in the Spanish army in the Netherlands," according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.
"There he won a reputation for great courage and cool determination."
He was recruited for the Gunpowder Plot given his expertise in explosives and his military experience.
The plot was centered around a group of Roman Catholic revolutionaries furious at the persecution of their faith in England.
Far from being the plot's ringleader Guy "Guido" Fawkes was the trigger man drafted in to set the fuse.
He did not know "the precise details of the plot" when he was recruited, according to Britannica.
Warwickshire-born Catholic Robert Catesby and his followers planned to kill King James I and his ministers by blowing up the Palace of Westminster during the state opening of parliament.
The plotters were: Fawkes, Thomas Bates, Robert and Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Christopher and John Wright, Francis Tresham, Everard Digby, Ambrose Rookwood, Robert Keyes, Hugh Owen, John Grant and the man who organized the whole plot – Robert Catesby.
By renting a house near the palace Fawkes managed to smuggle 36 barrels of gunpowder under the palace ready to blow it sky high.
The scheme was only rumbled when an anonymous letter was sent to Lord Monteagle warning him not to go to the House of Lords.
Physicists have calculated that the blast would have obliterated an area 1320ft wide.
How did Fawkes die?
Caught red-handed by the King's men beneath the palace he was tortured until he gave up his co-conspirators.
The traditional death for traitors in 17th-century England was to be hanged, drawn and quartered in public – but this was not the 35-year-old Fawkes' fate.
As he awaited his punishment on the gallows, he leapt from the platform to avoid having his testicles cut off, and broke his neck.
What year did Guy Fawkes lose his life?
Fawkes died on January 31, 1606, in London.
He was about 35 years old.
Why do we celebrate Bonfire Night?
Bonfire Night is the anniversary of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot on November 5, 1605.
It is celebrated in the UK by lighting bonfires, burning of "Guys" and setting off fireworks.
The celebration was actually enshrined in law a few months after the attempt and remained on the statute books until 1859.
Fireworks are also set off throughout the land as they are powered by gunpowder, representing the explosives that were never used.
The only place in the UK that does not celebrate the day is Fawkes' former school, St Peter's in York.
They refuse to burn a "Guy" out of respect for one of their own.
Yeoman of the guard search the cellars of the Houses of Parliament before the state opening in November.
However, it is a ceremonial gesture rather than an actual terrorist hunt – they even use old lanterns.
The actual cellar that Fawkes and his co-conspirators tried to blow up no longer exists, having been destroyed in a fire in 1834.
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